The Cattleya Alliance Orchids

This widely available and easily grown group of orchids contains some of the showiest flowers in the family. It includes not only the familiar Cattleya but also the very similar Laelia and the highly variable Epidendrum and Encyclia. Lesser known in their own right, but valuable as parents in a complex assemblage of hybrids, are Brassavola, Broughtonia, Caularthron (Diacrium), Rhyncholaelia, and Sophronitis.

All are native to tropical America. Some grow near sea level and thrive in moist heat, but others are high-mountain plants that relish cool temperatures. All require bright light and appreciate a humid atmosphere. Most can tolerate a wide range of conditions, however, and therefore make good choices for the novice grower.

Encyclia cordigera (Kunth) Dressler

Cattleya

Newer varieties range from white and the palest pink to yellow, orange, red, deep purple, green, and nearly blue. Flowers of some species are striped, spotted, or flushed with bronze and dark green, and many display lips of strongly contrasting colors. Although many of the 50-plus original species are available to enthusiasts willing to seek them out, most of the cattleyas on offer today are complex hybrids between several species, or even between different genera.

For cultural purposes, cattleyas can be divided into two classes. The unifoliate types have fat pseudobulbs with a single thick, leathery leaf, whereas the bifoliate types have thinner pseudobulbs topped by two or three leaves. Unifoliates have clusters of two to six large flowers with showy lips; the bifoliates have larger clusters of smaller flowers.

Cattleyas are sun lovers, and when grown indoors do best in a west or south window. They are considered intermediate in terms of their heat requirement: 55° to 60°F (13° to 16°C) night temperatures rising by 15°F (9°C) during the day. Bifoliates do best at the higher end of that range, but all will survive at lower or higher temperatures. At lower temperatures their growth will be slow and their flowering sparse. At consistently higher temperatures orchids grow rapidly but flowerless. Occasional temperatures of 95°F (35°C) for a few hours will not harm your orchids, so long as the humidity is high and air circulation good.

Pot cattleyas in bark or a bark-perlite mixture and keep containers on the small side, as the plants flower better when their roots are confined. Overpotting is likely to result in root damage caused by an excess of a damp potting mix.

Following the correct watering, procedure is the key to success with cattleyas. Plants should dry out between waterings, but these need to be more frequent during warm, bright weather when plants are transpiring freely and in a state of active growth. In winter keep orchids on the dry side, but not so dry that their pseudobulbs shrivel.

Feeding is best accomplished by means of a liquid plant food. Because bark contains little in the way of nutrients, feedings of plants potted in it must be frequent. Generally speaking, feed twice a month in spring and summer, while growth is rapid, and cut back to once a month the rest of the year. If the planting medium is very dry, water the orchids before feeding them.

Cattleya aclandiae
Bifoliate. Short pseudo bulbs 3 to 8 inches tall produce two or three short (2- to 3-inch), roundish leaves. The flowers are 3 to 4 inches across, heavy in substance, and brownish green heavily spotted with dark purple. The lip is purple with dark veins and white side lobes. The highly fragrant flowers appear singly or two to a stalk and bloom in spring or early summer. This cattleya is easy to grow and a valued parent for short stature and heavy substance.
Cattleya amethystoglossa
Bifoliate. A tall (to 40 inches) plant with clusters of six to eight (possibly many more) 4-inch, white, fragrant flowers with scattered purple spots and a purple lip. The flowers bloom in spring, sometimes again in fall.
Cattleya aurantiaca
Bifoliate. Plants grow 10 to 24 inches with clusters of eight to twelve 1 1/2- to 2-inch flowers. The flower color is bright orange, varying from yellow to nearly red. The flowering period is February to March. This orchid is easy to grow.
Cattleya bowringiana
Bifoliate. Grows to 2 feet tall and bears five to twenty 2- to 3-inch rosy purple flowers. A blue form is a parent of C. Portia, a very old hybrid still used in the production of blue cattleyas. This orchid is easy to grow.
Cattleya eldorado
Unifoliate. Pseudobulbs 3 to 6 inches tall are crowned by a single thick, leathery leaf to 8 inches long. The flowers are 5 to 6 inches across and white or white shaded with pale rose. The lip is rich purple, white at the base and with a yellow blotch at the throat. Some plants have pure white flowers marked only by a yellow blotch on the lip. The flower season is summer or early fall.
Cattleya gaskelliana
Unifoliate. Resembles C. labiata, with somewhat larger and paler flowers. Flowers in summer.
Cattleya harrisoniana
Bifolate. Thin pseudo bulbs 10 to 20 inches tall carry a pair of narrow 4-inch leaves. The flowers appear in late summer (and occasionally in other seasons); they are 2 to 3 inches across and purplish rose in color, with a yellow throat to the lip. Their texture is heavy. These orchids are considered easy to bring into bloom.
Cattleya intermedia
Bifoliate. Fifteen-inch plants bear two to five 4-inch flowers that are pink with whitish or purplish shading. Fragrant flowers appear in spring. Plants with a strong splashing of contrasting colors at their petal tips are called C. i. ‘Aquinii’. Many splash-petaled varieties have this plant in their ancestry.
Cattleya labiata
This species has club-shaped pseudobulbs up to 10 in (25 cm} tall, bearing one leaf. The flowers, one to five in number, emerge from a sheath or a sheath within a sheath. They are large, about 5 1/2 in (14 cm) in diameter. The color is variable from white through pale pink to magenta. Similar species (some have been occasionally regarded as variants within a single species) include C. dowiana (a yellow), C. mendelii, C. mossiae, C. trianae, C. warneri and C. warscewiczii. All these have showy flowers and are, or used to be, what most people could identify as an orchid. The magnificent large-flowered cattleyas found in orchid collections today have these bloodlines and may have a family tree going back 100 years.
Cattleya leopoldii
Bifoliate. Tall, thin pseudobulbs can reach 4 feet, although they are usually shorter. The leaves, two or three to a growth, are tough, thick, and up to 5 inches long. The foot-long spike carries as many as 20 fragrant 3- to 4-inch flowers. These are greenish brown or deep brown with faint spotting and have a purple lip with a white base. The flower season is summer.
Cattleya loddigesii
Bifoliate. Fifteen-inch plants carry two to nine 4-inch flowers of purplish pink with a paler lip. A pure white form is C. l. alba; C. I. coerulea has flowers of soft lilac blue. Fall or winter bloom.
Cattleya lueddemanniana
Unifoliate. Each 6- to 10-inch pseudo bulb bears a single 5- to 8-inch leaf. Spring flowers, three to four on a spike, are strongly fragrant and up to 8 inches across. The color is pinkish purple with lighter shadings. The lip is similar, with a yellow suffusion in the throat and a pattern of deep reddish purple lines toward the tip. An especially fine white form is sometimes seen. This species likes warmer conditions than most cattleyas. These orchids have flowers in spring.
Cattleya luteola
This is a dwarf plant with clustered pseudobulbs and 2 in (5 cm) yellow flowers clustered on a short stem. Not common in cultivation but, mated with Sophronitis coccinea, produced the very successful hybrid Sophrocattleya Beaufort.
Cattleya mendelii
Unifoliate. Similar to C. labiata. Large (7- to 8-inch) flowers are pale purplish pink, with a white lip tipped with rich reddish purple. These orchids have flowers from May to July.
Cattleya mossiae
Unifoliate. Similar to C. labiata, with pink or purplish pink 6- to 7-inch flowers in May and June. Sometimes called Easter cattleya.
Cattleya percivaliana
Unifoliate. Pseudobulbs to 6 inches long carry a single 4- to 10-inch leaf. Flowers 4 to 5 inches across are borne two to four per cluster. Their color is rosy lavender with a deeper-colored lip. The flowers have an odd fragrance and appear around Christmastime.
Cattleya schilleriana
Bifoliate. Plants 4 to 10 inches tall have 6-inch leaves occasionally spotted with red. Short spikes carry one or two 3- to 4-inch fragrant flowers of a heavy, waxy texture. Colors range from olive green strongly spotted with brown to a deep purplish brown. The lip is pale yellow, heavily marked with purple. Bloom season is late spring to early summer.
Cattleya schroederae
Unifoliate. Like C. trianaei, but with a distinctive fragrance and a more frilly lip, whose center boasts a deep orange blotch. Flowers in spring.
Cattleya skinneri
Bifoliate. Plants 12 to 24 inches high carry clusters of 5 to 19 or more 3-inch, fragrant, rose-purple flowers. The variety C. s. alba has white flowers. One of the easier species to grow, tolerating high temperatures and dry air. Abundant in Central America, it is the national flower of Costa Rica. Flowers in spring.
Cattleya trianaei
Unifoliate. Foot-tall pseudobulbs with 6- to 12-inch leaves carry clusters of three or four 6- to 9-inch lavender flowers, with variations from white to bluish purple. ‘Aranka Germaske’ is a white form. Flowers are in winter; this species is sometimes called Christmas cattleya.
Cattleya walkeriana
This is a smallish plant. An unusual feature, for cattleyas, is that the flower stem arises not from the terminal bud at the top of the pseudobulb but from the base of the pseudobulb. The flowers, typically two to a stem, are relatively large at 3 in (8 cm) across, of good substance and quite showy. Typical color is in shades of purple but pure whites are also seen. It is one parent, with Laelia pumila, of the much-awarded hybrid Laeliocattleya Mini Purple. Line breeding has developed some fine forms of this species. The long rhizomes are a disadvantage, making for a rambling plant that quickly grows over the side of a pot. It flowers in winter.
Cattleya warscewiczii
Unifoliate. Four-inch pseudo bulbs carry a single 8-inch leaf. The flowers can reach 7 to 9 inches in diameter. Color is purplish pink; the deep purple lip has a bright yellow center. Flowers are in June and July.

Intergeneric Hybrids

Nearly 60 of these intergeneric crosses have resulted in such popular and often-found genera as x Epicattleya, x Laeliocattleya, x Brassolaeliocattleya, x Sophrolaeliocattleya, x Potinara, and such oddities as x Hasegawaara and x Wilburchangara.

Only a few of these genera are widely sold, but the number of varieties and individual selections is immense. The list that follows gives the more common hybrid genera, along with the abbreviations commonly used to denote them.

Individual plants and crosses (grexes) are too many to name; a few of the more familiar crosses are mentioned. Remember that grexes are “flocks” of individuals that may vary considerably, although any member of one of these grexes is likely to be a fine plant. In addition, each grex name may be followed by a number of names set off by single quotation marks (x Brassolaeliocattleya Pamela Hetherington ‘Coronation’, for instance), which guarantees that the plant is truly superior.

*Brassocattleya (Bc.)
These are hybrids between a cattleya and one of several species of Brassavola. Those derived from B. digbyana (now called Rhyncholaelia digbyana) are distinguished by their large flowers with heavily fringed lips. A well-known grex is Bc. Deesse. Hybrids based on B. nodosa and its related species are smaller and less widely grown.
*Brassolaeliocattleya (Blc.)
Many of the finest and most familiar cattleyas actually belong to this compound genus. Plants have been bred for full, rounded flowers with broad petals and sepals. Many have fringed lips derived from the Brassavola (now Rhyncholaelia) digbyana ancestor. The following are a few of the crosses whose names you are likely to encounter.

  • Fortune. Large, rounded, golden yellow flowers with a ruffled orange lip.
  • Greenwich. Chartreuse green flowers with a touch of purple in the lip.
  • Malworth. Large, shapely flowers of apricot yellow with pink markings on the lip.
  • Mem. Crispin Rosales. Large, deep lavender flowers with a deep purple lip and powerful fragrance.
  • Mem. Helen Brown. Pale green flowers with a purple lip; strongly fragrant.
  • Norman’s Bay. Large, deep lavender to purple flowers with a deep purple lip.
  • Port of Paradise. Pale green flowers with a ruffled lip and powerful perfume.
*Cattleytonia (Ctna.)
Crosses between cattleyas (chiefly bifoliate ones) and Broughtonia sanguinea produce compact plants with long clusters of flowers in shades of pink, purple, red, or yellow.
*Epicattleya (Epc.)
Flowers of moderate size are carried on tall, erect stems rising well above the foliage. Fireball has bright orange flowers on 16-inch stems. Purple Glory has deep lavender flowers on 24-inch stems.
*Laeliocattleya (Lc.)
These resemble cattleyas in every detail. Vigorous plants have either one or two leaves per pseudo-bulb. Among the grexes that have produced show winners are Bonanza (deep lavender flowers with two yellow eyespots), Nippon (white flowers with a red lip), and Stephen Oliver Fouraker (white flowers with a red lip).
*Potinara (Pot.)
This cross of Cattleya, Brassavola, Laelia, and Sophronitis has combined the bright color and small size of Sophronitis with the vigor of the other three species. The resulting plants are compact and have flowers in rich shades of red, orange, or yellow. Keynote (yellow flowers), Flameout (red flowers), and World Venture (orange flowers) are representative grexes.
*Sophrocattleya (Sc.)
These offspring of Sophronitis and Cattleya are very small plants with bright orange, yellow, or red flowers.
*Sophrolaelia (Sl.)
Crosses between Sophronitis and Laelia produce small plants with brightly colored flowers. Grexes include Gratrixiae (red flowers), Orpetii (red or pink flowers), and Psyche (red flowers).
*Sophrolaeliocattleya (Slc.)
Smaller growers than other cattleyas, these also appreciate cooler growing conditions. Many grexes have red flowers derived from their Sophronitis parentage. Widely grown grexes are Anzac, Jewel Box, Madge Fordyce, and Paprika.

cattleyas white

Brassavola

Brassavolas are plants of generally drooping habit that are best grown attached to rafts or in baskets. Leaves, one to the pseudobulb, are narrow and roundish in cross-section. Flowers are white, greenish, or ivory, and fragrant at night. Flowering occurs in summer, sometimes throughout the year. Plants like bright light and a drying-out after pseudobulbs have completed their growth. They thrive in hot climates.

Brassavola cucullata
Each spidery 2-inch flower is carried on a drooping 6-inch stem. The lip is heart shaped and white with green tints.
Brassavola (Rhyncholaelia) digbyana
Although not widely cultivated now, this orchid from Central America is historically famous for being widely used by early hybridizers to create the intergeneric hybrids Brassocattleya and Brassolaeliocattleya. Their idea was to incorporate the spectacular fringed lip into hybrids. The flowers are large and greenish and can be grown with cattleyas.
Brassavola nodosa
LADY OF THE NIGHT. Its inflorescence rises to 6 inches above the narrow leaves. The three to five flowers are 1 1/2 inches or more across, the petals and sepals narrow and pale green, ivory, or white. The lip is 3 inches wide, green and white spotted with maroon. It may stay in bloom throughout the year. This is a good orchid for beginners who can provide warm, sunny conditions.

Broughtonia sanguinea

A West Indian genus of one or two species, although some authorities recognize more.

The clustered pseudobulbs are less than 2 inches tall and topped by narrow 6-inch leaves. Flower clusters to 20 inches tall are sometimes branched, bearing up to fifteen 1-inch flowers of bright red, with an ivory or yellow lip marked in bright purplish red.

Broughtonia sanguinea
A medium-sized orchid with many showy crimson flowers borne on long stems in fall and winter. Line breeding has produced beautifully colored round flowers up to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) in diameter. Yellow and white forms have been discovered. This is a lowland tropical orchid but can be grown the same way as cattleyas. It does like plenty of light and dislikes wet roots. For the latter reason, it does well if established on a slab. The species has been crossed with other members of the Cattleya alliance and some very beautiful hybrids are available.

Caularthron bicornutum (Diacrium bicornutum)

Tall (10-inch) pseudobulbs bear strap-shaped leaves to 8 inches long. A slender erect or arching flower stalk reaches 1 foot long with ten to fifteen fragrant, 2- to 3-inch white flowers shaded in pale pink. This hybridizes with Cattleya to form the rarely seen x Diacattleya.

Encyclia

The large genus Epidendrum has been split into two genera on technical grounds, with many of the species having pseudo bulbs being transferred to Encyclia. (Many encyclias are still familiarly known as epidendrums.) A very large genus native to Florida, Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America, its species differ widely in appearance. Most thrive in bright light and intermediate temperatures, resting after bloom and before new root and shoot formation starts.

Encyclia adenocaula (Epidendrum nemorale)
The 3-inch pseudobulbs are topped by one to three leathery, foot-long leaves. Flower spikes bearing many 2- to 3-inch flowers may reach a yard in length. Their color varies from pink to deep purplish pink with dark markings; the lip is paler, with dark streaks. Flowers in spring or summer.
Encyclia alata
One to three narrow, 20-inch leaves top the pseudobulbs. The fragrant, branching inflorescence can reach 4 feet in height, with many pale green or yellowish green flowers heavily marked with brown. The lip is white with 4 dark red veins.
Encyclia aromatica
Clustered pseudobulbs are topped by narrow 12-inch leaves and a branching inflorescence that can rise to 3 feet. The flowers are highly fragrant, cream or pale green with a pale lip veined in reddish brown.
Encyclia citrina (Cattleya citrina)
A high-altitude spring- and summer-flowering species growing at altitudes of up to 7200 ft (2200 m). The pseudobulbs and leaves have a silvery grey appearance and the plant tends to grow downward with pendulous flower stems. For this reason, it is easier to manage on a slab. The flowers are fragrant and golden yellow, borne singly, but they do not open fully. It needs to be kept fairly dry in winter.
Encyclia cochleata (Epidendrum cochleatum)
COCKLESHELL ORCHID. The pseudobulbs are up to 10 inches long, topped by narrow 16-inch leaves. The flower stalk may rise 20 inches; it carries several yellow-green flowers nearly 3 inches across. The inch-wide lip is at the top of the flower and is a deep blackish purple with a purple-veined white base. Flowering can be continuous over a number of months. This is a good orchid for beginners.
Encyclia cordigera (Epidendrum atropurpureum)
Short, clustered pseudobulbs 1 1/2 inches high are surmounted by 6-inch leaves. The arching or drooping flower stalk carries several large (to 3 inches), dark purple or brown flowers with pink lips.
Encyclia mariae
The orchid looks like an upright growing Encyclia citrina but the flowers are quite different. These have glossy jade-green sepals and petals and a large white lip. The 2 1/4 in (6cm) fully open flowers come two to four on a stem in summer. The color of the flowers is quite striking and the plant always attracts attention when exhibited.
Encyclia prismatocarpa
Pear-shaped pseudobulbs are crowned with foot-long leaves. Tall flower clusters contain many 2-inch flowers of yellowish green spotted with blackish purple. The lip is bluish purple with a white margin.
Encyclia radiata
The fragrant, spring-to-summer flowers in 9-inch spikes are cream to greenish white, striped in purple.
Encyclia tampensis (Epidendrum tampense)
Native to Florida and the Bahamas, this orchid has 2-inch pseudobulbs, narrow 16-inch leaves, and 2 1/2-foot sprays of fragrant, tan to olive green, 1 1/2 -inch flowers with purple-veined white lips.
Encyclia vitellina (Epidendrum vitellinum)
Leaves 10 inches long at the most top the 2 1/2-inch pseudobulbs. The 16-inch rigidly erect flower stalk carries a dozen or more inch-wide orange to scarlet flowers with yellow lips. Blooms over a long period under cool conditions.

Epidendrum

These orchids are of two types. Those with firm pseudo bulbs very much resemble Encyclia, which once was included in this group, and they require similar treatment. Species with tall, soft, cane-like stems are terrestrial and can be planted in open-ground beds where frosts are rare and light. This second group grows freely and easily, blooming much of the year. The stems and aerial roots sometimes tangle and become untidy, but the plants put on a good show given rich, well-amended soil and ample water.

Epidendrum ibaguense
Slender canes grow to 6 feet. Leaves 5 inches long form two ranks on opposite sides of the stems, which branch, root freely at the leaf joints, and even produce rooted offshoots. The leaves often turn reddish in the hot sun. Large clusters of small red, orange, or pink flowers appear at the tops of the stems. Bloom can be continuous. Many color forms exist among hybrids of this species-lilac, pink, yellow, and white. Although named varieties exist, most are sold simply by color as “reed-stem epidendrums.”
Epidendrum pseudepidendrum
Unbranched stems grow up to a yard in height, with two-ranked leaves in the upper half. The flower cluster at the end of the stem may be 6 inches across. Individual flowers are startlingly colored: bright green with a bright orange lip. Not as hardy as E. ibaguense.
Epidendrum radicans
This orchid has long (39 in or 1 m), thin stems with many aerial roots. Clusters of 1 1/2 in (4 cm) flowers are borne on terminal elongating stems. Flower size is variable, as is color, which is commonly orange or red. E. ibaguense is a similar or the same species but there are others, all referred to as reed stem epidendrums. E. radicans is classified as a warm-grower but is fairly tolerant temperature-wise. In frost-free areas, it can be grown in the garden in full sun. Where there are only light frosts, and the air temperature does not go below zero, this orchid can be tried under a tree or against the wall of a building protected by the eaves of the roof, but it must not be in shade for more than an hour or two each day. It needs quick-draining material around the roots. In the greenhouse it can be grown in pots in the peat-based mix suggested for cymbidiums but the medium should be watered before it has quite dried out. In good strong light, it will provide a display of flowers for months. Unsuitable for the home, even under lights.
Epidendrum stamfordianum
Pseudo bulbs to 10 inches tall carry 10-inch elliptical leaves. The 2-foot, branching inflorescence is crowded with fragrant, 1-inch-wide yellow or green flowers spotted with reddish brown. The lip is white, sometimes flushed with pink.

Laelia

This very large (more than 60 species and a host of varieties) genus is closely related to Cattleyas. Flowers of the larger species greatly resemble the familiar florist’s cattleyas, and some of the smaller ones display cattleya-type flowers on plants barely an inch tall. Although many are epiphytes, a number of the Brazilian species grow on rocks, taking their nourishment from mosses and their own decaying older parts.

These orchids are subject to intense sun and heat as well as to long periods without rain, but they do enjoy a humid atmosphere. The Mexican species L. anceps and L. autumnalis are quite hardy, growing in sheltered places outdoors along the California coast as far north as the San Francisco Bay Area. In colder climates, give them cattleya treatment.

Laelia anceps
An epiphytic or lithophytic species from Mexico with four-sided pseudobulbs and up to six flowers on a long stem. The weight of the flowers bends the stem to a semi-pendulous position -they are displayed best like this and so no attempt should be made to stake the stem upright. The flowers may be up to 4 in (10 cm) in diameter and are typically rose-purple but there are other color variations, including pure white. Flowers in winter or spring. This orchid likes good light and cooler conditions than cattleyas. It is a good plant for beginners and a popular plant with many growers. This orchid will tolerate temperatures down to 40°F (4°C) in winter.
Laelia autumnalis
Similar to L. anceps, but this species blooms in autumn. The lip is pinkish white with purple and yellow markings. The variety L. a. alba has white flowers with a yellow throat; ‘Atrorubens’ is large and very dark purple.
Laelia jongheana
A low grower from Brazil, with 2-inch pseudobulbs bearing a single 4- to 6-inch leaf and one or two nearly 5-inch purple flowers.
Laelia lucasiana fournieri (L. fournieri)
A short plant (to 4 inches) bearing 1 1/2-inch white flowers with a yellow lip.
Laelia lundii
An interesting small species from Brazil with stems of one to three white, rose-tipped flowers. The flowers come up with heavy, cylindrical leaves in spring and open before the leaf is fully developed. This orchid will not flower unless the plant is kept quite dry through the winter months.
Laelia pumila
A short plant (to 4 inches) with 4-inch, fragrant purple flowers.
Laelia purpurata
The national flower of Brazil. This orchid is an epiphyte and a larger plant than any of the other laelias mentioned here, being up to 20 in (50 cm) high. There are up to five 6 in (15 cm) flowers on a stem. The color is typically pink but many color forms exist, including white petals and sepals with lips of various colors. The species is widely line bred by Brazilian hobbyists and literature catalogs over 100 different varieties, with some reported to change hands at high prices. This species flowers from late spring to fall.
Laelia sincorana
The roundish leaves are 1 1/2 inches long, the purple flower more than 3 inches wide. This is a good plant for beginners who can provide strong light.
Laelia tenebrosa
Large plants bear three or four flowers on a foot-long stem. These 6-inch flowers are bronze with a purple lip.
Rupicolous laelias
Rupicolous means growing on rocks and that is what this group of species does, in Brazil, some in full sun. They are relatively small plants and most bear several flowers on longish stems. The leaves are upright, ending in a sharp point, said to have evolved as a deterrent to grazing animals. They are spring-flowering but often flower at other times in cultivation. There seem to be at least 40 species in this section, some only recently introduced into cultivation, and they are well worth a place in any collection. These orchids are not difficult to grow if given good light and a medium that dries out fairly quickly after watering. The deep yellow Laelia briegeri is one of the most beautiful species, with 2 1/4 in (6 cm) flowers with wider sepals and petals than others in the section. It has been the parent of some colorful hybrids. Two rather similar plants, L. lucasiana and L. longipes, have marginally smaller magenta flowers with yellow lips. A great conversation piece is the tiny L. lilliputiana, only 2 1/4 in or 6 cm tall, with rose-colored flowers. It is, in fact, one of the smallest plants in the entire cattleya alliance.

Rhyncholaelia

Two orchids once included in the genus Brassavola comprise this genus. Plants have thick pseudobulbs and thick, gray-green leaves. They grow under cattleya conditions but like even more sunlight.

Rhyncholaelia digbyana (Brassavola digbyana)
The powerfully fragrant flowers are 6 inches or more across and yellowish green in color, with a broad, white, heavily fringed lip. This lip accounts for the fringing in the hybrid genera x Brassocattleya and x Brassolaeliocattleya. (The older genus name is used to form the compounds.)
Rhyncholaelia glauca
The fragrant flowers are 5 inches in width and white, green, or pale lavender in color, with a white lip marked in purplish red.

Sophronitis

Nine species of small, cool-growing Brazilian orchids display relatively large and showy red flowers. Most bloom in autumn and winter. These are not the easiest of orchids to grow: try them in shallow, broad pots or on rafts of bark. They should never go entirely dry, but over-watering must be avoided. Reduce water in winter. They need light shade and good ventilation.

These orchids have donated their compact growth and bright color to a large group of intergeneric hybrids. Sophronitis coccinea is the most important species. Both the pseudobulbs and the short, fat leaves are an inch long. The inflorescence is 2 inches tall and carries one to three bright red flowers a little over an inch wide.

Sophronitis cernua
This is the most distinctive member of the genus. It is a smaller plant than the others and bears two to five 1 in (2.5 cm) orange-red flowers on a spike. It seems to do well on a slab.
Sophronitis coccinea
This used to be called Sophronitis Grandiflora. The 3 in (8 cm) high plants bear bright scarlet flowers that are large (2 1/4 in 6 cm) in relation to the size of the plant, though flowers much larger than this, resulting from line breeding, have been exhibited. The flowers emerge with the developing leaf in spring. The species grows in Brazil as an epiphyte in damp rain-forests in partial shade. In cultivation, this orchid should not be allowed to dry out completely in summer but needs watering with discretion as the roots will decay if kept permanently wet. These orchids reach flowering size in 2 in (5 cm) pots. An effort should be made to keep them in small pots as it seems to take much skill to maintain the plants in good condition in pots larger than 3 in (7.5 cm).
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